I have just published here the second article of my short series on the EU General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (GDPR) for IT.
In this article I discuss a few points about the risk-based approach requested by the GDPR which introduces the Data Protection Impact Assessment (DPIA), and a few IT security measures which should often be useful to mitigate risks to the personal data.
I have just published here the first article of a short series in which I consider some aspects of the requirements on IT systems and services due to the EU General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (GDPR).
I started to write these articles in an effort, first of all for myself, to understand what actually the GDPR requires from IT, which areas of IT can be impacted by it and how IT can help companies in implementing GDPR compliance. Obviously my main interest is in understanding which IT security measures are most effective in protecting GDPR data and which is the interrelation between IT security and GDPR compliance.
It is a few years that it is known that the SHA1 Cryptographic Hash Algorithm is weak, and from 2012 NIST has suggested to substitute it with SHA256 or other secure hash algorithms. Just a few days ago it has been announced the first example of this weakness, the first computed SHA1 “collision”.
Since many years have passed from the discovery of SHA1 weaknesses and some substitutes without known weaknesses are available, one would expect that almost no software is using SHA1 nowadays.
Unfortunately reality is quite the opposite: many applications depend on SHA1 in critical ways, to the point of crashing badly if they encounter a SHA1 collision. The first to fall to this has been the WebKit browser engine source code repository due to the reliance of Apache SVN on SHA1 (see eg. here). But also Git depends on SHA1 and one of the most famous adopters of Git is the Linux kernel repository (actually Linus Torvalds created Git to manage the Linux kernel source code).
For some applications to substitute SHA1 with another Hash algorithm requires to rewrite extensively large parts of the source code. This requires time, expertise and money (probably not in this order) and does not add any new features to the application! So unless it is really necessary or no way to keep using SHA1 and avoid the “collisions” is found, nobody really considers to do the substitution. (By the way, it seems that there are easy ways of adding controls to avoid the above mentioned “collisions”, so “sticking plasters” are currently applied to applications adopting SHA1).
But if we think about this issue from a “secure software development” point of view, there should not be any problem in substituting SHA1 with another Hash algorithm. Indeed designing software in a modular way and keeping in mind that cryptographic algorithms have a limited time life expectancy, it should be planned from the beginning of the software development cycle how to proceed to substitute one cryptographic algorithm with another of the same class but “safer” (whatever that means in each case).
Obviously this is not yet the case for many applications, which means that we have still to learn quite a bit on how to design and write “secure” software.
The security of modern cryptography is based on number-theoretic computations so hard that the problems are practically impossible for attackers to solve. In practice this means that approaches and algorithms to crack the cryptographic algorithms are known but with the current best technologies it would take too many years to complete an attack.
But what if a shortcut is found at least in some particular cases?
This is exactly what some researches [article, arstechnica] have just found for the Diffie-Hellman (DH) algorithm with 1024bit keys, algorithm which is one of the pillars of the security of Web transactions among many other uses. The researchers have shown that for DH with 1024bit keys there exist some parameters (prime modulus) that allow with current technologies to compute the secret encryption keys in short time. In other words, some parameters adopted in DH-1024 can contain invisible trapdoors. The only ways to securely use DH today seem to be:
- to know how the parameters have been generated and to be sure that they do not allow for any “trapdoor”
- or to use DH with 2048bit or larger keys.
What does this teach us about the security that cryptography provides to everyday IT?
How should we implement and manage cryptography within IT security?
Is cryptography joining the “zero days => vulnerabilities => patch management” life-cycle which has become one of the landmarks of current IT security?
Wired reports in this article of a recent advance in deployed cryptography by Google.
Last summer the NSA published an advisory about the need to develop and implement new crypto algorithms resistent to quantum computers. Indeed if and when quantum computers will arrive, they will be able to crack easily some of the most fundamental crypto algorithms in use, like RSA and Diffie Hellman. The development of quantum computers is slow, still it continues and it is reasonable to expect that sooner or later, some say in 20 years, they will become reality. Also the development of new crypto algorithms is slow, so the quest for crypto algorithms resistant to quantum computers, also called post-quantum crypto, has already been going on for a few years.
Very recently Google has announced the first real test case of one of these new post-quantum algorithms. Google will deploy to some Chrome Browsers an implementation of the Ring-LWE post-quantum algorithm. This algorithm will be used by the chosen test users, to connect to some Google services. Ring-LWE will be used together with the current crypto algorithms adopted by the browser. Composing the current algorithms with Ring-LWE will guarantee a combined level of security, that is the minimum level of security is that of the strongest algorithm used in the combination. It should be noted that Ring-LWE is a much more recent crypto algorithm compared to the standard ones, and its security has not been established yet to a comparable level of confidence.
If the level of security will not decrease and hopefully just increase, it has to be seen how it will work in practice in particular for performances.
For modern cryptography this two-year Google’s project could become a cornerstone for the development and deployment of post-quantum algorithms.
The security researcher Gal Beniamini has just published here the results of his investigation on the security of Android’s Full Disk Encrytion and found a way to get around it on smartphones and tablets based on the Qualcomm Snapdragon chipset.
The cryptography is ok but some a priori minor implementation details give the possibility to resourceful attackers (like state / nation agencies or well funded organized crime groups) of extracting the secret keys which should be protected in hardware. The knowledge of these keys would allow to decrypt the data in the file systems, the very issue which has been at the basis of the famous Apple vs. FBI case a few months ago.
Software patches have been released by Google and Qualcomm but, as usual with smartphones and tablets, it is not clear how many afflicted devices have received the update or will ever receive it.
In a few words, the problem lies in the interface between the Qualcomm’s hardware module, called the KeyMaster module, which generates, manages and protects the secret keys and the Android Operating System that needs to indirectly access the keys in this case to encrypt and decrypt the file-system. Some KeyMaster’s functions used by Android can be abused to make them reveal the secret keys.
This is another case which proves how it is difficult to implement cryptography right.
Monitoring outgoing traffic to detect intrusions in IT systems is not a new concept but often it does not seem to be enough appreciated, understood and implemented.
IT security defences cannot guarantee us against every possibile attack, so we must be prepared to the event of an intrusion and to manage the associated incident.
The first step in incident management is to detect an intrusion. Traditional tools like Anti-Virus, Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems (IDS/IPS) etc. do their job but they can be bypassed. But intrusions can also be detected by monitoring the outgoing traffic.
In my recent personal experience, some intrusions have been detected and stopped because the outgoing traffic was monitored and blocked. Since the deployed malware was not able to call back home, it did not do anything and there was no damage; and since the outgoing traffic was monitored, the intrusion was immediately detected.
But monitoring the outgoing traffic to detect intrusions is becoming more and more difficult. For example attackers are adopting more often stealth techniques like using fake DNS queries. An interesting example has been recently described by FireEye in “MULTIGRAIN – POINT OF SALE ATTACKERS MAKE AN UNHEALTHY ADDITION TO THE PANTRY” . In this case, malware is exfiltrating data by making DNS calls to domains with names like log.<encoded data to exfiltrate>.evildomain.com . Obviously the DNS query fails, but in the logs of the receiving DNS server it is written the name of the requested domain, that is the data that the malware is exfiltrating.
As attackers are getting more creative to hide the back communication between malware and their Command & Control services, IT Security will need to devise more proactive approaches to monitoring and blocking outgoing traffic.
Among IT practitioners there are a lot of ideas and discussions on the “Internet of Things” (IoT) and the security risks associated to them.
If IoT has many positive and useful future developments, the security aspects are very difficult to manage to the point of posing a very big question mark on the idea itself of IoT.
One example is described in the research “House of Keys: Industry-Wide HTTPS Certificate and SSH Key Reuse Endangers Millions of Devices Worldwide” published by SEC Consult, which shows how many hosts, typically home and SOHO routers for internet access, use the same cryptographic keys, which are public and well know, so that anyone can impersonate them and anyone who can intercept their traffic can decrypt it.
Even if the impacts of this vulnerability are probably not very high, it seems extremely difficult to fix, since the new devices will be fixed but the millions already in use will probably never be fixed and will remain active for a few more years.
Even more worrisome is that these are IT devices developed, built and sold by IT companies that should known about IT and IT security. What will happen when billions of devices will be connected to internet (the real IoT) developed, built and sold by non IT companies?
Homomorphic encryption is an old idea but only in 2009 and the work of Gentry started to have some possible practical applications. Since then there have been quite impressive improvements in the research in this field of cryptography, also due to the need to improve the security of data managed by Cloud systems.
In brief, homomorphic algorithms are cryptographic algorithms that allow to do computations, like sums, multiplications, searches etc., on encrypted data giving encrypted results, without knowing the encryption key.
It should be obvious that these algorithms would be very useful for Clouds’ applications since the owner of the data would be able to use the data remotely by keeping at the same time the data, and the result of the computations, always encrypted in the Cloud application.
Unfortunately homomorphic encryption is not ready yet for general use, but it has just appeared an interesting research paper by Microsoft Reasearch announcing the release of a SEAL (Simple Encryption Arithmetic Library), a library for using homomorphic encryption in bioinformatics, genomic and other research areas.
Obviously the title of this post is provocative, but reading some recent news it is evident that us, IT professionals and IT industry, are not good in managing cryptography. The consequence is that we deploy cryptography in IT products and give a false sense of security to the users. This actually can have worse consequences than if we would not use cryptography at all. I will give just a couple of examples.
This research paper shows how a well-known brand of hard disks has implemented disk encryption in totally faulty ways, to the point that for some disk models hardly any security is provided by the built-in disk encryption functionalities. This is just another of many similar cases, where cryptographic protocols and algorithms are incorrectly implemented so to cancel all or most of the security that they should provide.
Another research paper shows how a well-funded agency or corporation can in practice break the encryption of any data encrypted with the Diffie-Hellmann (DH) key exchange algorithm using keys up to 1024 bits included. Should we be shocked by this news? Not really since already 10 years ago it was known that a key of 1024 bits is too short for DH. Indeed, as per RFC 7525, a 1024 bit DH key offers a security less than a conventional bit security of 80 bits, but again RFC 7525 states that the absolute (legacy) minimum required conventional bit security must be 112 bits, and the current minimum required conventional bit security is 128 bits, that would practically correspond to a 2048 bits DH key. Even if we, IT professionals and IT industry, have known for at least 10 years that 1024 bits DH keys are too short to offer security to the data that they should protect, as of today a too large number of HTTPS websites, VPNs and SSH servers use DH keys of 1024 bits or less (see again the research paper mentioned above).
Unfortunately these are not two isolated examples, recent news are full of similar facts. So I start to wonder if we are good enough to manage cryptography or if we should look into something else to protect IT systems.